My research is focused on two interconnected areas: energy and development; and energy and climate change. I approach the energy and development work from the perspective of how energy systems have evolved, and likely to evolve in the future in line with medium and long-term development plans. This connects with the need for alternative technology pathways, institutional development, financial and policy analysis to serve the delivery of energy services, mainly in developing countries. I approach the energy and climate change dimension of my research from the perspective of behaviour change and lifestyle choice on the one hand, and technical interventions for avoiding future emissions on the other. The emissions avoidance aspect mainly relates to energy systems in developing countries. I have published extensively in these areas.